Крипто мир - итоги/события 2021

Updated: Jan 16

Обзор крипто мира 2021. События в мире крипты и изменение рынка за год. Лучший год для крипты за всю историю?



 

В целом 2021 был прорывным и хайповым годом для мира криптовалют.


Мы увидили

- как Биткоин и разные альткоины побили рекорды цен в несколько раз и закрепились выше чем когда либо,

- давление регуляторов и правительств различных стран на криптовалюты,

- поддержку криптовалют и интерес институциональных инвесторов

- хайп от частных инвесторов и всех людей в целом к криптовалютам

- памп отдельных коинов благодаря Илону Маску и Джеку Дорси,

- нфт бум

- метавселенные



Поогнали....


 


1. All-time highs. Ценовые рекорды


Основные игроки из топ 100 показали хороший рост, переписали ценовые рекорды и закрепились на порядок выше чем в прошлом году.


The Bitcoin price burst through its all-time high of $68,000 on 5 November, showing a massive increase on the $28,000 range in which it was trading in December last year. But the crypto market also took some brutal hits. Cryptocurrencies are still a new alternative asset class and volatility is expected to characterize crypto for a while yet.





2. Maturity - Market cap. Зрелость крипто рынка - маркет кап




Капитализация крипто рынка (суммарная рыночная стоимость обращающихся на рынке активов) выросла в 3 раза за 2021год на момент середины января 2022!


Digital assets and crypto businesses showed massive growth and significant market cap gains, indicating maturity in the sector. Coinbase debuted in 2021 as the biggest digital asset listing in history, coming to market at twice the valuation of Nasdaq. This has been positive for the industry, increasing trust and transparency. Having a public company of this size showcases that crypto-related businesses - and the crypto asset class - should be taken seriously. The crypto sector was valued at more than $3 trillion during the year at pick pints.




3. NFT boom. Бум НФТ

Everydays by Beeple that was sold for about US$69 million


Год начался с хайпа на НФТ.

Кратко - НФТ это невзаимозаменя́емый то́кен (non-fungible token) = уникальная сущность, где каждый экземпляр (то есть токен) неповторим и не может быть обменен или замещён другим аналогичным токеном.

Простыми словами - что-то на подобии отпечатка пальца, который уникален для каждого человека, но в мире криптовалют.

Ценность НФТ огромна в масштабе всего интернета и позволяет подтвердить собственность/авторство цифровой сущности.


Основное применение и распространение обширно, на текущий момент что уже реализовано - исскуство, игры.


Самый дорогой НФТ токен - Everydays By Beeple был продан за 69 миллионов $ в 2021.


Игровая индустрия получила буст с НФТ и вышло несколько сильных игр - Axie Infinity самая популярная из них. Можно играть чтобы заработать, торгуя и сражаясь персонажами. Цена токена AXS выросла с 6 в июне к 150 в ноябре 2021.



The most expensive NFT in 2021 was Everydays By Beeple, which was sold for almost 40,000 Ether (equivalent to almost US$69 million).


Gaming with NFTs has also gained traction in 2021, and the best example is Axie Infinity.

Axie Infinity is an NFT-based game inspired by Pokemon and Tamagotchi. You can play-to-earn by trading, battling or even breeding new adorable characters called Axies. Each Axie is unique and represented by NFTs.


To play the game, players need to assemble a team of three unique Axies to take part in battles. These Axies can be bought on the Axie Marketplace with Ethereum (ETH).

As of October 2021, there were over two million monthly active users using the game, which led to an impressive 953 percent monthly volume growth. Furthermore, the price of the AXS token skyrocketed in 2021, from US$6 at the end of June, to an all-time high of US$150 in November 2021.

The game is so profitable that some players are able to make more than an average worker’s wage in their country by playing the game.

NFTs are mainly used in the art and gaming scene. Recently, NFT characters are also making rounds on the internet.

Usually, these NFTs are hosted on Ethereum networks. This means that you have to buy an Ethereum token (ETH) – which can be bought from a platform like Luno – to purchase NFTs on marketplaces like Opensea or Mintable.



4. Metaverse. Метавселенные


Метавселенная — постоянно работающее виртуальное пространство, в котором люди взаимодействуют с цифровыми объектами и друг с другом, в том числе с помощью виртуальной реальности.

Идея стала популярной во второй половине 2021 года с подачи Марка Цукерберга и его компании Facebook. В июле он объявил о начале работы над метавселенной, которая объединит разные цифровые платформы на основе технологий дополненной и виртуальной реальности. Метавселенная должна стать цифровым пространством, где пользователи смогут работать, играть и общаться.


28 октября компания Facebook объявил о переименовании в Meta. Так в компании решили подчеркнуть фокус на развитии метавселенной. Марк Цукерберг рассказал, что в новой виртуальной реальности пользователи получат реалистичные аватары, которые будут выглядеть, как их владелец. Компания уже работает над тем, чтобы пользователи могли помещать цифровые объекты в реальный мир в виде голограмм и взаимодействовать с ними, добавил миллиардер.

Действия Meta спровоцировали волну хайпа на этой теме. О создании собственной метавселенной вскоре объявила и Microsoft, Nike решила продавать цифровую одежду для метавселенных, а крупные IT-компании начали вкладываться в недвижимость в игровой метавселенной Decentraland и на других площадках.


Несколько инвесторов приобрели в Decentraland виртуальные земельные участки более чем на $5,5 млн. Ранее в метавселенной Sandbox продали виртуальную мегаяхту за $650 000.



5. “I’m in” – More companies start to adopt crypto. Признание и использование криптовалют большими компаниями.



With more attention dedicated to cryptocurrencies, companies are taking it more seriously. There are many ways that companies were involved.


For one, Tesla and Square(Square Co a Japanese video game company founded in September 1986) both hold reserves in Bitcoin. Tesla announced in February that it bought US$1.5 billion worth of Bitcoin, holding them as reserves. Shortly after that, Square also bought US$170 million worth of Bitcoin as reserves.


This is a breakthrough as it shows institutions and individuals that Bitcoin can be a form of reserve asset, similar to gold. Bitcoin is commonly known as digital gold, as it has a limited supply and it is impossible to counterfeit.


Additionally, Adidas and Nike have joined the metaverse sneaker wars.

Adidas collaborated with Bored Ape Yacht Club for their “Into The Metaverse” project, allowing fans to buy limited edition Adidas merchandise as an NFT. Nike has also bought a company that makes virtual shoes and sneakers.



Nike bought RTFKT, a company that makes virtual sneakers / Image Credit: RTFKT

This might seem bizarre – afterall, why would we even need virtual shoes? Like a pair of Nike shoes in the real world, the limited edition shoes are a status symbol and a way to stand out from the crowd.

As more companies move towards the metaverse in the near future, these brands are making a move to establish themselves in the space.

Fintech and traditional payment providers began to adopt blockchain and crypto solutions, with giants PayPal, Venmo, Mastercard and even Twitter allowing customers to transact in Bitcoin. In South Africa, Capitec and Discovery Bank formed partnerships to list crypto as a new product offering.


6. Countries are getting involved with cryptocurrencies too. Вовлечение стран в крипто рынок


As we see more companies adopting cryptocurrencies, countries also want a slice of the action.

Of course, we cannot miss out on one of the biggest news of the year: El Salvador and its Bitcoin adoption.

In September, the government of El Salvador sent shockwaves throughout the world when they announced that they now accept Bitcoin as their national currency, making it the first-ever country to adopt Bitcoin as legal tender.



7. The emergence of Bitcoin ETFs

The Bitcoin Strategy ETF is the first U.S. exchange-traded fund based on bitcoin futures from the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME Group) and approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The Bitcoin Strategy ETF started trading on 19th October 2021 on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The event attracted a record amount of institutional capital: the firm that launched the Bitcoin futures ETF (BITO) filed an application with the CME to remove restrictions on the maximum amount of contracts to buy.



8. Coinbase IPO


I think that many people underestimate the importance of this event, especially after its share price has dropped significantly. I want to emphasise that no matter what the price of shares is currently, the very entry of the exchange into the first listing in the history of the crypto industry has gr


eat implications for the cryptocurrency market.

The successful listing was a victory for the entire market, as it became a kind of marker of approval and support for the sector from traditional finance. For the industry as a whole, the Coinbase IPO looks like the consent of regulators to work with crypto assets in the legal field. In addition, Coinbase's decision had a positive impact on other market players, for example, Kraken announced its decision to go public in 2022.


9. Development of Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC). Цифровые деньги

Страны внедняют и разрабаотывают "цифровые" деньги - что показывает туекущие тренды на диджитализацию и цифровизацию в целом и изменения в денежных системах в частности.


Talking about national currencies, we have to also mention the CBDCs. CBDC is a digital currency that is run on the blockchain developed by central banks.


Although there isn’t one currency that dominates the industry, the most notable project is the Digital Yuan in China. The central bank of China already had trials in several cities like Shanghai.

Since most Chinese are already using e-payment on a daily basis, the transit to a CBDC would be an interesting one.

Other notable CBDC projects are the Project Ubin in Singapore and the Digital Euro in Europe.

KEY TAKEAWAYS


  • Digital currencies are currencies that are only accessible with computers or mobile phones because they only exist in electronic form.

  • Typical digital currencies do not require intermediaries and are often the cheapest method for trading currencies.

  • All cryptocurrencies are digital currencies, but not all digital currencies are cryptocurrencies.

  • Some of the advantages of digital currencies are that they enable seamless transfer of value and can make transaction costs cheaper.

  • Some of the disadvantages of digital currencies are that they can volatile to trade and are susceptible to hacks.



10. Binance ban in the UK and Europe



For a very long time, we have heard the position of large traders that although Binance is not a regulated exchange and does not follow the rules of the game, “it is too big a player in the market for anything to happen to it”. However, recent events have shown the opposite. The consistent ban of the exchange in Europe and the introduction of mandatory KYC showed that we have finally come out of the Wild West stage and entered the regulated world.


10. Crypto + Mining Bans



China, India - strict rules to have 100% observability over money movements in the country.

China - full crypto mining ban with GPU/Asics.


India has a weird relationship with cryptocurrencies. The government was twice set to introduce a crypto bill seeking to ban “all private cryptocurrencies” this year before backing out.



 

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